Friday, 11 October 2013


Posted by Hemant Goel On 22:13

Thursday, 10 October 2013

Stirrer Assembly

Posted by Hemant Goel On 22:34

Saturday, 31 August 2013

Goel 100% Glass Decor....

Posted by Hemant Goel On 04:02

Thursday, 1 August 2013

Multi Purpose Unit

Posted by Hemant Goel On 00:27

Goel offers multipurpose pilot plant for chemical and pharmaceutical industries for process development, scale-up, process stimulation and kilo-scale cGMP production in batch and semi-batch operation. The pilot plant used for chemical processing includes solid charging, liquid charging, reaction, heating/cooling, rectification, auto/manual reflux arrangement, layer sepration, product cooler, vaccum catch pot, vaccum header etc.
The multipurpose pilot plant designed in such a way that we can modify the same easily as per process requirement.
Available with
  •  Jacketed full glass reactor/cylindrical full glass reactor with oil heating cooling bath/spherical full glass reactor with oil heating cooling bath.
  •  Multipurpose glass distillation overhead.
  •  Stainless steel/MS epoxy coated/MS painted frame supporting.
  •  Flame proof/Non flame proof/cGMP/non GMP models available.
  •  Excellent corrosion resistant.
  •  Temp. controller
  •  Gas purging, solid charging/multi liquid addition.
  •  Vaccum/exhaust piping
  •  Additional feeders/receivers
  •  Solid feeding

For more information, You can log on to our website or check us on Social sites or drop an email on :

Sunday, 28 July 2013


Posted by Hemant Goel On 23:48


1.Made from Schott-Duran Borosilicate 3.3 glass tubing only.
2.Standard and specific design to suit any parameters.
3.Available in various sizes.
4.Your best option to switch over from IMPORTED to INDEGENIOUS

Saturday, 27 July 2013


Posted by Hemant Goel On 20:24

Key Contact Persons
Mr. Anshul Goel
+91-98253 18944

Mr. Keyur Shah
Exec. Director (Technical & Marketing)
+91-98253 03966

Mr. Himanshu Bhatt
AGM - Technical
+91-98253 00935

Mr. C.M. Trivedi
Manager Marketing (Lab. Div.)


Posted by Hemant Goel On 19:12*

GOEL SCIENTIFIC GLASS WORKS LTD. is one of the leading Scientific glass fabricator in the world, who has provided
the Glass Industry of India a big leap in the Global Market. We have made presence in all the populated continents and are
representing & supplying our product & service worldwide. At present, we have over 250 satisfied customers across the

We fabricate glass parts from best raw material from various leading manufacture for its production. On request, we also
produce glass parts from Leading European Borosilicate Glass 3.3 tubing supplier which fulfills all major standards of DIN
ISO 3585 & ASTM E438 Type I, Class A and thus offering high accuracy & excellent optical properties which is at par to
other leading manufactures across the globe.

Understanding the Glass at it's best, we forge Glass with the precise mixed combination of craftsmanship of Potter,
Blacksmith & Goldsmith with a blend of engineering, being “The Transparent Specialist”.

We specialize in design, fabrication, engineering, installation & commissioning of Pilot Plant/Mini-Plant & Standard
Distillation Unit for Research & Development. All glass parts are designed, fabricated, tested & installed as per
International Norms like ISO 3585, 3586, EN BS 1595, AD 2000 Merkblatt. On request, glass pilot plant parts are available
with CE Marking & documentation with added monetary value.

We have been launching an entire range of glass equipments in the Indian & global market. A few are as below:

1989 : 
Developed the unique XTRONG RANGE, which possess a tightening strength as high as 3 times than
earlier conventional ones and thus almost eliminates leakage and breakage problems while tightening.


Introduced Glass Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers for the first time in Indian market.


Started “Process Plant Division “ for the development of New Products.


Started manufacturing Spherical Vessels from an entirely new technique very first time in the country,
placing us at par with overseas manufacturers of such vessels.


Became the first ISO-9001 certified company in the “Glass Equipment Manufacturing “segment in India.


Successfully executed export order of 640,000 multi-necked flasks within a time period of 8 months.


Developed 300-Litre Spherical Vessel & participated as exhibitor in ACHEMA-2003, Frankfurt, Germany.


800 DN pipe section manufacturing for the first time in India.


Manufactured 500 Ltr. Spherical Vessel.


Participated in ACHEMA-2006 for 2nd time & given seminar on “Jumbo Rotary”at Frankfurt, Germany.


Developed FLEX-HE (Assembled coil type) heat exchangers.

Awarded for outstanding performance for the year 2006 - 07 by Govt. of Gujarat, Ministry of Ind. & Mines.


Manufactured for the first time 800 Ltr. Kettle and participated in ACHEMA -2009 at Frankfurt, Germany for
the consecutive 3rd time.


Developed Flexi Double Jacketed Vessel (Triple Wall – Detachable Jacket)


Developed Assembled Jacketed Vessel up to 200L Capacity.

A Unique beautification project designed to reach turn over Rs. 2500 Cr. from 10 Cr. in 10 years.


Posted by Hemant Goel On 07:11*

Laboratory works require apparatus made in a Borosilicate 3.3 expansion glass which offers maximum
inertness to widest range of chemical substances, withstand thermal shock, high temperature without
deforming and resilient enough to withstand the normal laboratory handling, washing and sterilizing

Borosilicate glass represents unmatched standardized glass for construction of Laboratory
Glasswares. Its steadly growing use is due to many advantages over conventional materials.

  • Outstanding corrosion resistance
  • Smooth pore and surface.
  • Transparency
  • Catalytic, inertness
  • No effect on taste and odour
  • Physiological inertness

Borosilicate glass is chosen for its unique chemical and physical properties. Borosilicate glass can be
considered as being composed of oxides. Silica (SiO2 ), boric oxide (B2O3 ) and phosphorous
pentaoxide (P2O5 ) are chief glass form oxides. Soda (Na2O), Lime ( CaO ), Alumina (Al2O3 ) Potash
(K2O) Magnesia (MgO) and lead oxide (PbO) are the principle modifiers/fluxes.

The composition of borosilicate glass used has following approximate composition.
SiO2 - 80.6 %B2 O3 - 12.5%
Na2O - 4.5 %Al2 O3 - 2.2 %


Borosilicate glass is inert to almost all materials except hydrofluoric acid (HF) phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
and hot strong caustic solutions. Of these, Hydrofluoric acid has the most serious effect, even when it is
present in PPM (parts per million) in solutions, Whereas phosphoric acid and caustic solutions cause
no problems when cold but at elevated temperature corrosion occurs. In case of caustic solutions upto
30% concentration can be handled safely at ambient temperature.

Under actual operating conditions, the effect of turbulance, and traces of other chemicals in the
solution may increase or decrease the rate of attack. So it is not possible to give exact figures for
corrosion by caustic solutions.


Linear coefficient of thermal expansion the coefficient of thermal expansion of borosilicate glass over
the temperature 0-300 OC is 33 x 10-7 / OC. This is very low when compared with other glasses and
metals. That is why borosilicate glass is often called low expansion borosilicate glass.

Specific heat between 25OC and 300 C is average to be 0.233Kcal/Kg C.


Thermal conductivity is 1.0 Kcal/hr. m C over the permissible operating temperature range.

Annealing of glass is the process where the glass is heated and kept for a defined period of time to relieve internal stresses. Careful cooling under controlled conditions is essential to ensure that no stresses are reintroduced by chilling/cooling.

The lack of ductility of glass prevents the equalization of stresses at local irregularities or flaws and the
breakage strength varies considerably about a mean value. This latter is found to occur at a tensile
strength of about 700kgs/cm.
In order to allow for the spread of breaking stress, a large factor of safety is applied when determining the
wall thickness requirement to allow operation up to specified limit of working pressure.

Borosilicate glass shows no appreciable absorption in the visible region of spectrum and therefore appears clear and colorless. In photo chemical process the transparency of ultra violet is of particular importance. It follows from the transmittance of material in UV region that photochemical reactions such as chlorination & sulpho -chlorination can be performed in it. 

Head Office :
C-31/A, Sardar Estate, Ajwa Road, Vadodara - 390 019 Gujarat, India
Ph. : +91-265-2561595, 2521181 l Fax : +91-265-2561482, 2511428

e-mail : |

Friday, 26 July 2013

Goel’s Condenser

Posted by Hemant Goel On 23:19

We at GOEL manufactures and supplies Condensers up to 24inches.
Condensers are used for condensation of vapors and cooling of liquids. Condensers are made by fusing number of parallel coils in a glass shell. Coils are made in different diameters using tubes of different bores.

The average co-efficient of heat transfer in coil condenser
is considered as-
Condensation 200 - 270 Kcal/m ,hr, C appx.
Cooling 100 - 150 Kcal/m ,hr, C appx.

Below table shows the detail dimensions of different size condensor:

Precautions to be taken in use of condensers
- Vapors should be passed through shell only.
- Maximum pressure of coolant should be 2.7 bars.
- Adequate flow of coolant should be used.
- Steam should not be used in coils.
- Coolant should not be heated to boiling point.
- Coolant control valve should be turned slowly.
- Coolant should be allowed to drain freely.
- Brine can be used in coils in a closed circuit.
- Water main should be connected with flexible hose.
- Ensure no freezing of water remaining in the coils.
- Condensers should be mounted vertically only.
- Condensers can be mounted in series to provide larger surface area.


Vapors from bottom
This method is simple to install over a reactor. However this results in condensate returning substantially at its condensing temperature. In this method care must be taken that condensate is not excessive that it can lead to "logging" the coils and create back pressure in the system. Generally a reflux divider is used below the condenser to take out the distillate.

Vapors from top
This method produces a cool condensate using the entire cooling surface area. This method should be used where the condensate can lead to "logging" of coils.

Tuesday, 25 June 2013

Jacketted Vessels

Posted by Hemant Goel On 23:12
We at GOEL understand the requirement and fulfill the needs by supplying the best of ours to consumers.

Jacketed Vessel is used for special applications. A cylindrical vessel is supplied with jacket of glass for heating and cooling purpose. Jacket is sealed to the vessel with Viton ‘O’ sealing compositions. The seal prevents high stresses between vessel and jacket by allowing the movement flexibility between two due to thermal expansion.

Glass jacket can be used for a maximum operating pressure of 0.5bar and a maximum operating temperature of 130 degree Celsius in jacket.  We manufacture jacketed vessels from 5Ltr to 200Ltr. capacity.
For more details,

You can visit our website at or mail us

Thursday, 20 June 2013

Beaded Glass

Posted by Hemant Goel On 02:54
Borosilicate Glass Beaded Pipes are excellent corrosion resistant. The smooth surface of the glass prevents the sticking of the dirt & thus enables visual monitoring. Borosilicate Glass Beaded Pipes are best suited for chemically/organically contaminated waste water, waste gases, exhaust air, laboratory building drainage, Kitchen wastewater, sanitary wastewater, wastewater at airport runways etc. Borosilicate Glass Beaded Pipes are durable against acids, salty solutions & other organic substances. Due to the above, Borosilicate Beaded Pipe are better in such application in comparison to metals & plastics. All the beaded pipes are suitable for operating pressure of 0.5 bar (g). Beaded pipes joints are vacuum proof & are suitable for working temperature up to 120’C only.       We offer Beaded Pipes & components from DN 40 to DN 150. Incase you have requirement of bigger diameter component, feel free to discuss.


Friday, 7 June 2013

Heating Mantle is used for electrical heating of cylindrical as well as spherical vessels. Also
available in flameproof & non-flame proof models. The flaneproof heating mantle is similar to
normal mantle but the main difference is in construction of heating elements. Heating
elements is flameproof by covering it in magnesium oxide powder & SS metal tube. Heater
terminal terminate in flameproof cold junction terminal enclosure. All electrical control like
regulator, switch, indicating lamp, relay etc. fitted in flameproof switch encloser.

for more infirmation visit our website :

Fabrication of 100ltr sperical Flask

Posted by Hemant Goel On 03:03

To fit a bottom outlet valve (BAL type) all spherical and cylindrical vessels can be supplied
with valve seat in bottom outlet. For this, Add a suffix "/B" to the catalogue reference of a
vessel, for e.g. 'VSL50’ should be mentioned as 'VSL50/B'

for more infirmation visit our website  :

A wide variety of valves are described in this section. All the valves are made of Borosilicate
Glass body & PTFE plug so that process fluid just comes in contact with Glass & PTFE only.
Borosilicate Glass body permits the visual checking of the operation.
All the valves are suitable for operation under full vacuum conditions & a maximum
temperature of 200'C.
Borosilicate Valves are available from DN 25 to DN 50.
Bigger size valves are available on request.

Wednesday, 5 June 2013

50LTR Reaction Distillation Unit

Posted by Hemant Goel On 21:26
This is a versatile unit and can be used as Reaction Distillation Unit, Fractional Distillation Unit or a combination of both. All features of Reaction Distillation Unit and fractional Distillation Unit are incorporated.
Heating bath heats and evaporates the contents of the vessel. The stirrer agitates to ensure uniform stirring, heat distribution and to avoid heat spots. Vapors enter into the packed column and get fractionated. Vapors of low boiling liquid enter into condenser, get condensed and collected in twin receivers. From the final receiver, distillate can be removed without breaking the vacuum.
The unit is complete with a spherical vessel, drain valve, heating bath, thermometer pocket, and liquid addition vessel, agitator, packed column, coil condenser, product cooler and twin receivers.

The unit is available in vessel size of 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 Ltr. and is suitable for operation under atmospheric pressure and full vacuum.  

Monday, 3 June 2013

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit

Posted by Hemant Goel On 04:32

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit
We at GOEL Scientific has been providing complete technical solutions to the chemical, agro and pharma industries. We understood the needs and requirements of consumer and provide quality products with services. GOEL team is dedicated to ensure all the products are being delivered beyond the consumer’s expectation.
Liquid extraction, sometimes called solvent extraction, is the separation of constituents of a liquid solution by contact with another insoluble liquid.

The liquid to be extracted is poured in to an extraction vessel. Solvent is boiled in a reboiler vessel and condensed in an overhead condenser, the condensed liquid collecting in a reflux divider and passing through pipework to the extraction vessel. The pipework incorporated valves in order that the solvent can enter the extraction vessel at either the base of the top, depending on the relative densities of the solvent and liquid to be extracted. The solvent and the extracted liquid pass back to the reboiler and the process is repeated until the extraction is complete. The extraction vessel is then drained and the solvent evaporated from the reboiler vessel and collected in the extraction vessel enabling the two liquid to be drained from their respective vessels.

For More Information you can visit our website:

Thursday, 30 May 2013

Photos Gallery

Posted by Hemant Goel On 01:40

Wednesday, 1 May 2013


Posted by Hemant Goel On 01:53


When heated with proper care Laboratory Glasswares will give long and satisfactory service. The
following notes assist users in obtaining the maximum life and performance from their Laboratory

Glass may suffer damage in three ways :

* It may break under thermal stress in the 'steady state'.
* It may break under sudden heating or cooling.
* Glass if heated beyond certain temperature, may acquire a permanent stress on cooling which could
cause subsequent failure.

The following suggestions will help in avoiding failures during heating and cooling procedures.

1. During evaporation, never leave vessel unattended. Lower the temperature gradually as the liquid
level drops, to avoid dryness condition, otherwise glass vessel may crack or explode.
2. Always use caution when placing heated vessel on a cold or damp surface. Sudden temperature
may cause the vessel to break.
3. Always cool vessels slowly to avoid thermal breakage.
4. Never apply heat to badly scratched or etched vessel to prevent chance of breakage.
5. Avoid point source of heating to a vessel and always diffuse it by using a metal guage or air/water
bath. Alternatively ensure uniform heating of the vessel by slow movement of the vessel in relation to
he heat source.
6. Uniform heat is critical factor for some chemical reactions. For this adjust large soft flame of Bunsen
burner to heat slowly but also more uniformly.
7. Adjust the flame contacts and heat the vessel below the liquid level to avoid breakage of the vessel.
8. Always use anti-bumping devices in the vessel, such as pumice or glass wool when rapid heating of
the vessel and contents is required and to prevent internal abrasions of the vessels.
9. Thick walled glasswares are best heated with the use of an electric immersion heater and should not
e subjected to direct flame or other localised heat source.
10. Do not heat glassware's over electric heaters with open elements to avoid localised stress and
chances of breakage.
11. Always ensure that the surface of the hot plate is larger in area than the base of the vessel being
heated to prevent uneven heating and glassware breakage.
12. When using electrical appliances always ensure to follow manufacturer's instructions.


1. To prevent scratching the inside of a vessel always use a 'policemen' or similar device on stirring
2. When using a glass vessel with a magnetic stirrer always uses a covered follower to prevent
abrading the inside of the vessel.
3. Before using glass or metal mechanical stirrer in a glass vessel, predetermine the height of the stirrer
to ensure there is no contact between the stirrer blades and the bottom or sides of the vessel.
4. Never mix sulphuric acid and water inside a glass-measuring cylinder. The heat of reaction can break
the base of the cylinder.


1. Always follow safety measures when working with glassware subjected to pressure or vacuum.
2. Never use glassware beyond the recommended safe limit.
3. Gradually apply and release positive and negative pressures and never subject to sudden pressure


1. When storing glass stopcocks and joints insert a thin strip of paper between joint surfaces to prevent
2. Never store stopcocks for long periods with lubricant still on the ground surfaces.
3. Glass stopcocks on Burettes and Separating Funnels should be lubricated frequently to prevent
4. If a ground joint sticks, the use of penetrating oil will often prove useful in helping separation.
Carefully rocking the cone in the socket or gently tapping the socket flange on a wooden surface can
generally achieve separation.
5. In using lubricants it is advisable to apply a light coat of grease completely around the upper part of
the joint and avoid greasing that part of the joint, which contacts the inner part of the apparatus.
6. (a). Hydrocarbon grease are commonly used on standard taper joints. Most laboratory solvents,
including acetone, can easily remove it.
(b). For higher temperature or high vacuum applications, silicon grease is often preferred and it can
be removed readily with chloroform.
( c ). For long term reflux or extraction reactions, glycerin grease is suitable and it is soluble in water.
7. Wear heavy protective gloves when inserting glass tubing into a bung. The use of water, oil or
glycerol is recommended on both tubing and rubber bung while carrying this operation.


1. To prevent accidents use tongs or asbestos gloves to remove all glassware from heat source.
2. Follow safety measures.
3. Before opening Acid bottle, always flush the outside of bottle with water.
4. All mercury containers should be kept well stoppered. Mercury toxicity is cumulative and element's
ability to amalgamate with a number of metals is well known.
5. Never taste or smell chemicals for identification and never drink from a beaker.
6. When using concentrated acids, alkalies or potentially hazardous materials use mechanical means
or pipeting. Avoid pipeting by mouth.
7. Label all containers before filling. Never fill unlabeled containers and throw away contents of
unlabeled containers.
8. Do not look down into a test-tube to avoid any type of accident while test tube being heated or
containing chemicals.
9. Do not permit glass-to-metal contact when clamping glassware, and do not excessively tighten the
clamps to avoid breakages.
10. Splattering from acids, caustic materials and strong oxidizing solutions on the skin or clothing should
be washed off immediately with large quantities of water.
11. When working with chlorine, hydrogen, sulphide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other
very toxic substances, always use a protective mask or perform these experiments under a fume
hood in a well-ventilated area.
12. In working with volatile materials, remember that heat causes expansion and confinement of
expansion results in explosion.
13. Perchloric acid is especially dangerous because it explodes on contact with organic materials. Do not
use perchloric acid around wooden benches or tables. Keep perchloric acid bottles on glass or
ceramic trays having enough volume to hold all the acid in case the bottle breaks. When using
perchloric acid, always wear protective clothing.
14. When using hot plates and other electrical equipments, ensure the wire and plugs are in good
condition. Never handle electrical connection with damp hands.


Successful experimental results can only be achieved by using a clean apparatus. In all instances
laboratory glassware must be physically clean, in nearly all cases it must be chemically clean and in
specific cases it must be bacteriological clean or sterile. There must be no trace of grease and safest
criteria of cleanliness are the uniform wetting of the glass surface by distilled water. Any prevention of
uniform wetting of the surface will introduce errors such as distortion of the meniscus and accuracy of


1. Experienced personnel must solely undertake. cleaning of glassware, which contain hazardous
2. Most new glassware is slightly alkaline in reaction. For precision chemical tests, new glassware
should be soaked several hours in acid water (1% solution hydrochloric acid or nitric acid) before
3. Glassware, which is contaminated with blood clots, culture media, etc., must be sterilized before
4. If glassware becomes unduly clouded or dirty or contains coagulated organic matter, it must be
cleaned with chromic acid cleaning solution. The dichromate's should be handled with extreme care
because it is a powerful corrosive.
5. Wash glassware, as quickly as possible after use but if delays are unavoidable, the articles should be
allowed to soak in water.
6. Grease is removed by weak sodium carbonate solution or acetone or fat solvents. Never use strong
7. Hot water with recommended detergents should be used and if glass is exceptionally dirty a cleaning
powder with a mild abrasive action can be applied - provided the surface is not scratched.
8. During the washing all parts of the article should be thoroughly scrubbed with a brush selected for the
shape and size of the glassware. Brushes should always be in good condition to avoid any abrasion
of the glassware.
9. When chromic acid solution is used, the item may be rinsed with the cleaning solution or it may be
filled and allowed to stand-the amount of time depending on amount of contamination on the
10. Special types of precipitate material may require removal with nitric acid, aqua regia or fuming
sulphuric acid. These are very corrosive substances and should be used only when required.
11. It is imperative that all soap detergents and other cleaning fluids be removed from glassware before
use. This is especially important with the detergents, slightly traces of which will interfere with
serological and culture reactions. After cleaning, thoroughly rinse with tap water ensuring that
containers are partly filled water, shaken and emptied several times. Finally rinse with demonized or
distilled water.
12. Drying can be undertaken either in baskets or on pegs in air or at a temperature not exceeding 120 OC.
13. Always protect clean glassware from dust by use of temporary closures or by placing in a dust free
cabinet. For cleaning Specific type of glassware, please refer the following pages



1. Place pipettes tips down, in a cylinder or tall jar of water immediately after use. Gently place it on a pad
of cotton or wool to prevent breaking of the tips. At a convenient time, the pipettes may then be
drained and placed in a cylinder or jar of dissolved detergent or, if exceptionally dirty, in a jar of chromic
acid cleaning solution. After soaking for several hours , or overnight, drain the pipettes and run tap
water over and through them until all traces of dirt are removed. Soak the pipettes in distilled water for
at least one hour. Remove from the distilled water, dry the outside with a cloth shake out the water and
2. In laboratories where a large number of pipettes are used daily, it is convenient to use an automatic
pipette washer. Polyethylene baskets and jars may be used for soaking and rinsing pipettes in
chromic acid cleaning solution.
3. After drying, place pipettes in a dust-free drawer. Wrap serological and bacteriological pipettes in
paper or place in pipette cans and sterilize in the dry air sterilizer at 160 OC for two hours. Pipette used
for transferring infectious material should have a plug of cotton placed in the mouth end of the pipette
before sterilizing.


1. Remove the stopcock key and wash the burette with detergent and water.
2. Rinse with the tap water until all the dirt is removed. Then rinse with distilled water and dry.
3. Wash the stopcock key separately. Before the stopcock key is replaced in the buerette, lubricate the
joint with a small amount of lubricant.
4. Always cover burettes when not in use.


1. Culture tubes, which have been used, previously must be sterilized before cleaning. The best general
method for sterlising culture tubes is by autoclaving for 30 minutes at 121OC (15 lb. pressure). Media
that solidify on cooling should be poured out while the tubes are hot. After the tubes are emptied, brush
with detergent and water, rinse thoroughly with tap water, rinse with distilled water, place in a basket
and dry.

2. If tubes are to be filled with a medium, which is sterilized by autoclaving, do not plug until the medium is
added. Both medium and tubes are thus sterilized with one autoclaving.
3. If the tubes are to be filled with a sterile medium or if they are to be sterilized by the fractional method
and sterilize the tubes in the autoclaves or dry air sterilizer before adding the medium.


1. Serological tubes should be chemically clean but need not be sterile. However, specimens of blood,
which are to be kept for some time at room temperature, should be collected in a sterile container. It
may be expedient to sterilize all tubes as routine.
2. To clean and sterilize tubes containing blood, discard the clots in a waste container and place the
tubes in a large basket. Put the basket with others, in a large bucket or boiler. Cover with water, add a
fair quantity of soft soap or detergent and boil for 30 minutes. Rinse the tubes and clean with brush,
rinse and dry with the usual precautions.
3. It is imperative when washing serological glassware that all acid, alkali and detergent be completely
removed. Both acid and lkali in small amounts destroy complement and in large amounts produce
hemolysis . Detergents interfere with serological reactions.
4. Serological tubes and glassware should be kept separate from all other glassware and used for
nothing except serological procedures.


1. Sterilize and clean as detailed under Culture Tubes.
2. Wrap in heavy paper or place in a petri dish can.
3. Sterilize in the autoclave or dry air sterilizer.